National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria
Title: Anaemia in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy in National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria
Biography: Chinedu S Aruah
Introduction: Many cancer patients present with anaemia prior to radiotherapy and chemotherapy or may experience anaemia /worsening of anaemia at some point during treatment.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was impact of anaemia in cancer patients undergoing Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.
Methodology: 201 cancer patients of both sexes with histopathologically confirmed malignancies (solid cancers). Patient’s pre-treatment Hb was taken. Patients were distributed into Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy and Chemoradiation. Their Hb were measured once every 2 weeks. The blood film pictures of the patients were examined. The whole process was terminated after 3 consecutive Hb reading or after week 6. Anaemia was classified into:
Less than 10g/dl - Severe anaemia
10 - 10.9g/dl - moderate anaemia
11 - 12 g/dl - mild anaemia
12 g/dl and above - no anaemia.
Results and Analysis: Out of 201 cancer patients, 86.1% were female and 13.9% were male. Age range, 25 - 75 years, 100 patients were on Chemotherapy, 63 patients on Radiotherapy and 38 patients on Chemoradiation. The prevalence in anaemia in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy was found to be 63% as shown by blood film picture (i.e average of 72%, 42.9% and 73.7%).
At the end of therapy, 62% (100) patients on Chemotherapy and 55.6% (63) patients on Radiotherapy had their Hb level between 11-12g/dl, 39.5% (38) cancer patients on Chemoradiation arm had Hb value of 10-10.9 g/dl. At P- value > 0.05, there was no statistical significance on distribution of mean Hb, standard deviation based on sex and treatment type.
Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia in the study group was found to be 63% while 37% had adequate haemoglobin (Hb) after the therapy as reflected in the blood film picture. At 95% confidence interval, Chemotherapy had greatest impact on Hb level during therapy. Thus Chemotherapy; 9.60-10.62g/dl, Radiotherapy; 11.52-12.1 3g/dl, Chemoradiation therapy; 10.98-11.3 6gIdl.